How the EARTH sounds from SPACE: REAL SOUND

How the earth sounds like from space.

Space is a hollow surface, an emptiness in which no sound can propagate. So you might think that space is in absolute silence. Suppose you turn your ears into receivers of radio waves. In that case, the space around the Earth suddenly becomes a symphonic constant of strange and incredible sounds.

Let's listen to the music of space! You don't have to climb too high above the Earth to already be in space. Only 160 km high, the sound is no longer audible because there are not enough particles to spread sound waves.

Even here in space, you can find many other types of waves.

The ones that interest us most today are the electromagnetic waves that do not require other particles because they propagate by themselves through photons.

In fact, right now, you are enjoying electromagnetic radiation through the light when you watch this video. 

  • Radiation ranges from gamma rays with extremely high frequencies to radio waves that can be miles long.
  • There are also radio observatories and radio telescopes, some of which are currently orbiting the Earth.

We will enjoy what they have captured in the way radio waves are most frequently experienced: in sound frequencies that are converted into sound.

When we reach the Van Allen Belt, some fascinating sounds can already be heard in the large radiation band surrounding the Earth.

These sounds are produced by high-energy particles in the Earth's plasmasphere, which are hurled back and forth by the rotation of the Earth's magnetic field.

Around the Earth, there is a plasmasphere containing clusters of ions and electrons.

As the Earth and its magnetosphere rotate, magnetic fields penetrate these particles and accelerate them with a wave called plasma, similar to how disturbances in the oceans can cause waves to form.

You can hear these disturbances in the form of radio waves as they pass through one of NASA's Van Allen Probes:

  • They are called chorus waves and are often heard during sunrise, so it seems to be the Earth's singing.

A fantastic type of chorus wave closest to Earth is the hissing plasma wave, which sounds like space battles and lasers. These are generated in the colder and denser part of the plasmasphere and are caused by electromagnetic radiation emitted by lightning in the atmosphere.

The waves generated by these rays can bounce off the Earth's magnetic field. 

Since higher frequencies propagate faster than lower frequencies, they sound with a characteristic descending tone, similar to a whistle.

It is believed to be caused by electrons that, due to reconnection in the Earth's magnetic tail, move to the night side of the Earth and transfer their energy to the plasma when they collide with it.

In another area of the plasmasphere, we can find something called hiss waves:

  • These are believed to be chorus waves that have emerged from the inner plasmasphere.
  • They sound much more threatening and colder than the others we have heard so far.

The universe is singing  through its radio waves in space

Sound waves propagate mechanically like oscillation and require a medium - liquid, solid or gaseous - for propagation.

And while interplanetary (and interstellar) space is not empty. Gas molecules and dust grains are scattered so that they do not form a continuous medium that allows the direct transmission of sound waves.

However, there are many places in the solar system that have an atmosphere or an ocean, which can be quite loud.

The meteor that "touched" Earth made Venus come to life

The meteor that "touched" Earth made Venus come to life.

Recently, traces of phosphine gas have been found in the clouds of Venus, suggesting that it could support life. But a new study suggests that the compounds may have originated on Earth.

Harvard researchers suspect that the biosignature gas arrived on Venus from meteorites that hit our planet's atmosphere and crashed on the distant planet.

The study finds that at least 600,000 space rocks immersed in the Earth's atmosphere have collided with Venus in the last 3.7 billion years.

The 2017 meteor crashed into the Earth's atmosphere at 35,000 miles per hour for a minute and a half before returning to space.

Based on its trajectory as it skimmed the atmosphere, the team estimates that the rock had a diameter of about 12 inches and probably weighed at least 132 pounds.

Although the abundance of Earth's life in the upper atmosphere is unknown, these planetary shepherds may have been able to transfer microbial life between the atmospheres of Earth and Venus," says the Harvard study.

Origin of life on Venus may be indistinguishable from life on Earth

Previous research has shown that life can be found up to an altitude of 43 miles from the surface.

Asteroids touching Earth can dive 52 miles deep without significant warming. Another deeper asteroid would kill any life it has collected from our planet.

More work is needed to investigate the existence and abundance of microbial life in the upper atmosphere," says the study.

The team also notes that if a meteorite from Earth enters another planet's atmosphere, the hitchhiker microbes could be released into the clouds before the rock dissolves into the atmosphere.

A future probe that could sample the habitable cloud cover of Venus could allow direct detection of microbial life outside of Earth:

  • In particular, the ability to analyze microbes directly on-site or send an atmospheric sample to Earth will be crucial to plan a successful mission.
  • Finding the same genomic material on Venus and Earth would be clear evidence of panspermia.

The researchers have warned that phosphine detection is not substantial evidence of alien microbial life. The phosphine gas indicates that potentially unknown geological or chemical processes are taking place on the planet.

Is there alien life out there? 

Mankind has been wondering about it for decades, and it could finally become a reality. Astronomers have discovered that there could be life on Venus. Does this mean that we will finally meet the aliens? Could this help us discover more aliens?.

World's first full-scale, commercially viable hydrogen-powered plane

World's first commercially viable hydrogen powered plane.
hydrogen-powered plane

Aircrafts powered by Hydrogen: the world's first "commercially available" hydrogen-powered long-haul aircraft takes off over Great Britain in a big step towards zero emissions flights. The six-seater Piper M-Class aircraft has completed a 20-minute flight from Cranfield Airport in Bedfordshire.

The small airplane is powered by hydrogen fuel cells

The company that built the aircraft, ZeroAvia, received £2.7 million from state resources in September 2019. ZeroAvia will attempt the next attempt to fly the six-seater hydrogen powered aircraft 250 miles from the Orkney Islands. 

A commercially available full-size hydrogen-powered aircraft has completed a successful flight over the skies of Bedfordshire, a world premiere. 

Behind the first flight is the British company ZeroAvia, which hopes that commercial aviation will be emission free by 2023. 

The successful 20-minute flight included a cab, take-off, full circumnavigation and landing and will be followed this year by a 250-mile flight from the Orkney Islands.

The six-seater Piper M Class aircraft took off from Cranfield airport, where ZeroAvia's research and development facilities are located. 

The hydrogen fuel cells generate electricity to power a battery and an engine by mixing hydrogen and oxygen - which is supplied by air - through a chemical reaction.   

The only waste product of this process is water

unlike traditional aviation, which is one of the main responsible for greenhouse gas emissions. 

Previous research has shown that flying is responsible for about 3.5% of humanity's contribution to climate change.

While some experimental aircraft have flown with hydrogen fuel cells as an energy source, the size of this commercially available aircraft shows that paying passengers could soon embark on a truly emission-free flight.

The company's Hyflyer project received £2.7 million in government funding last year. 

  • Although the company claims that this flight was innovative, there are other examples of hydrogen powered aircraft.
  • Already in 2016, a plane called HY4, which can carry four people, completed a flight from Stuttgart airport in Germany, powered exclusively by hydrogen fuel cells.
  • HY4 was developed by researchers from the German Aerospace Center together with "partners from industry and research".
  • However, the unique feature of ZeroAvia flight is that Piper's M-Class is commercially available, while HY4 is not.

Is hydrogen the future of flight?

While the widespread use of hydrogen propulsion in airplanes is still very far away, the technology is already used in land transport, even if on a small scale. In the British capital London, for example, hydrogen buses have been introduced.

However, research does not show a great future for aircraft that transport energy in a battery. The battery is not suitable for flying aircraft of any size, except perhaps for special gliders.

Aircraft are an integral part of the travel industry. Millions of vacationers go on vacation every year to visit their favorite countries or to discover new destinations. It's not exactly environmentally friendly - that's why many scientists are researching how air travel can be made more sustainable.

What are the dangers of tattoo ink? | Long term effects of tattoos

What are the dangers of tattoo ink?. Long term effects of tattoos
What are the dangers of tattoo ink?. Long term effects of tattoos

Although it is increasingly common to fill your body with ink, many people do not know how their skin reacts after going under a needle.

Although it is becoming increasingly common to fill your body with ink, many people do not know how their skin reacts after getting a tattoo. 

In particular, health experts point out that inks can trigger allergic reactions, which could generally lead to minor but potentially serious complications.

You're introducing a foreign body through the skin and there are risks. "The body can sometimes react in many ways you never thought it would. Allergic reactions don't have to happen immediately, they can happen weeks or even decades later, according to the American Academy of Dermatology.

Beware of the Ink Color

These negative effects may depend on the color of the ink used. Many people report mild side effects, such as redness, swelling, or itching, on drawings made with the color red.

Similarly, several reports indicate that this hue may cause a severe allergic reaction, accompanied by blisters, flaking skin, and watery discharge combined with severe pain, hives, difficulty breathing, or a rapid heartbeat.

If you have the psoriasis gene you should avoid getting a tattoo. Dermatologists say it could trigger the disease

The process of getting a tattoo may be completely normal and pose no problem, but there may be something in the red pigment that your body simply does not accept, The truth is, if you've never been exposed to one before, there's no way you'll know before you get your tattoo.
Red ink may cause mild side effects such as redness, swelling, or itching. And the yellow color may increase the skin's sensitivity to the sun.
Regardless of colours, if you used an ink that your skin does not tolerate, it could cause neurodermatitis. This causes bubbles to form on the tattoo and the skin becomes "thick and leathery".

On the other hand, if you have the gene for psoriasis you must rethink the dream of immortalizing your dog in your body.  Dermatologists point out that tattoos could trigger the development of the disease.

Unfortunately, there is no method or tool available that can help predict whether everyone is predisposed to develop an allergic reaction to tattoos.

Dermatologists, in any case, recommend getting a very small test tattoo to see how the skin responds to the ink.

Is Broccoli Good For Herpes? | New Research, Broccoli extract slowed down herpes.

Is broccoli good for herpes? virus.
Is broccoli good for herpes? | Science Blog.

Scientists hope that research into this effect will help to make the first cure for the virus.

Is broccoli good for herpes?

German molecular biologists have seen for the first time how the herpes virus penetrates human cells and suppresses its immune system. 

These observations helped to find out that broccoli extract and experimental medicine for kidney disease slow down the infection, researchers reported in an article published by the scientific journal Nature Communications.
"We have visualized the changes that occur in the operation of each gene - in the cells where the virus has penetrated. These observations helped us to understand that the inclusion of the NRF2 gene was associated with the slow development of the infection and increased resistance to virus attacks."
Said one of the authors, a biologist from the Max Delbruck Molecular Medicine Center (Germany), Vedran Franke.

The herpes virus is one of the most common pathogens on Earth. The first subtype of the virus, hsv-1,  affects the lips, and the second, hsv-2, mainly affects the human genitals. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the first subspecies of herpes has infected more than half of the world's adult population.

Herpes, especially hsv-1, has long been considered a harmless virus, but in recent years there has been evidence that it may be associated with Alzheimer's disease, encephalitis, some forms of genital cancer and a number of other dangerous diseases. 

The situation is complicated by the fact that herpes vaccine does not yet exist, and therefore a person remains infected with the virus throughout his or her life.

Franke and his colleagues have taken a great step towards solving this problem by observing how herpes penetrated into single fibroblasts, the cells of human skin. 

To do this, they counted the number of copies of the virus inside the cells and monitored how the activity of certain human genes and the pathogen itself changed after herpes entered the nutrient medium and into the cells.

Natural antivirus

Observing such shifts, scientists hoped to understand which parts of the genome are responsible for the response to virus attacks and how hsv-1 suppresses their work or remains invisible to cellular defense systems. 

In total, scientists infected more than 12,000 single skin cells and tracked changes in the activity of more than 3,000 genes.

As measurements have shown, the virus did not start to multiply inside the skin cells immediately. In the first hours after its penetration, the number of copies of the virus inside them remained very low, and most of the virus genes did not manifest themselves in the life of fibroblasts. 

What happened to the victims of hsv-1 in the following hours depended on the activity of the gene chain, which is associated with the work of the NRF2 protein.

According to scientists, this enzyme is responsible for the reaction of cells to inflammation and a high level of chemically aggressive molecules inside them. It includes dozens of other genes and forces them to produce antioxidants that neutralize this threat and protect DNA from damage. 

Disorders are particularly associated with kidney failure, multiple sclerosis and other diseases.

Guided by this idea, researchers have tried to suppress the development of the virus, using the drug RTA-402, an experimental cure for kidney disease, as well as sulforaphane - a similar substance that is present in large quantities in broccoli and other types of cabbage.

Both of these stimulators have markedly slowed down the spread of the virus, dramatically reducing the number of viral agents that produced already infected cells and protecting a significant proportion of healthy skin fibroblasts from herpes attacks. 

Scientists hope that further study of this chain of genes and similar drugs will make it possible to create the first cure for herpes.

How to help my overweight child lose weight | Childhood Obesity

how to help my overweight child lose weight girl and cake
how to help my overweight child lose weight

How to help kids lose weight, Simple steps that can help parents deal with the complex situation. What are good diets for kids?

How to help obese children

The excess weight usually has an effect on the child's health, as well as social and functional implications. 

It is difficult for parents to see the child's suffering, and they are debating what is right for him and whether the weight should be defined as a problem or is it the child's body structure.

A few simple steps may help parents cope with the complex situation successfully. 

What foods are healthy for children? mom and girl eat
What foods are healthy for children?

It is important for parents to understand that the real challenge is changing the lifestyle of the entire family, and not just the overweight child. 

Because lifestyle change, like other changes, may be challenging, we recommend choosing two to three goals to focus on. 

Goals that have high chances of success should be chosen, as any success you experience increases motivation to keep on changing.

Weighing children as a means of surveillance should be avoided as well as compliments or comments related to their body appearance. 

In addition, parents should avoid self-weighing with their children or comments about their appearance. 

Only the willpower of the children, their health and their progress in the change process must be considered. 

It is advisable not to radically avoid any food from the family menu. Remember that everything is allowed in small quantities, once every few weeks.

How can an obese child lose weight?

The foundation of every success is the belief in your child's abilities to make change.

Encourage and strengthen the child with every success, small or large.

Eat neat family meals in a pleasant atmosphere. It is important not to have it in front of the TV, computer or other screens. 

Family meals allow children to learn from parents to diversify the foods eaten, experience proper eating and enjoy quality family time.

It is important to make sure that the meals include some foods that the children love, and to which new foods and flavors will be added.

Many children are not attracted to different vegetables, so they should be given the vegetables they love and offer with them each time another new vegetable.

Use small plates and small dishes, this is a good way to get the right amount of food.

There is usually no need to limit the amount of fruit eaten by the children. The fruits provide available energy, in addition to vitamins and minerals that are essential for the body's normal activity, and also include dietary fiber that helps in proper metabolism. 

Breakfast is important for providing the energy needed to start daily activities, hormonal and perceptual functioning. The meal can be small, and even include only fruit, a glass of milk or soy milk. 

Breakfast may help regulate the following meals, and reduce the risk of obesity.

Drink only water.

Leave the sweet drink to the occasional special occasions. Water is necessary for the proper functioning of the body, and our bodies do not always signal us in time for our fluid needs. 

It is important that all members of the family, especially the parents, make sure to drink water as an exclusive drink. Avoid a situation where one family member keeps himself a soft drink at home.

For dinner, we recommend offering children fresh fruit, fruit salad, fruit-based plush, whole-grain crackers with healthy spread, or whole-wheat flour muffin. 

In families where it is customary to eat sweets and snacks, it is advisable to limit their eating and offer children a weekly "candy bank" that will define the amount they can eat. 

Each child can be given a small, decorated box with enough candy for three days or a week, and the child will have to manage his own candy bank alone.

How Sports Can Help Childhood Obesity. kids playing sports
How Sports Can Help Childhood Obesity

How sports can help childhood obesity?

Sports are important to health and improve body metabolism. It is recommended to perform sports activities four times a week, at any age and in any physical condition, adjusting the activity to the ability. 

Since children prefer to do sports as part of family activities and play, it is worthwhile to find common and fun ideas such as hiding, jumping rope, soccer and dancing at home. 
  • The activity must be fun and not too difficult to encourage the child to persevere.

Many hours of computer games or watching TV increase the risk of obesity.

Beyond the fact that children do not feel the amount of time they sit and sometimes eat in front of the screen, such a lifestyle creates behavioral conditions that will affect their lives as adults. 

Watching television also causes them to be exposed to advertisements that encourage eating unhealthy foods. It is therefore important to limit the screen time to two or three hours a day.

Questions and Answers on childhood obesity

  • My eight-year-old daughter keeps telling me she's hungry, and I don't know whether to let her eat every time or not. I'm also not sure if her weight is good for her age. How to deal?
Children sometimes tend to use the words "I'm hungry" to create an immediate response in the parents. 

Sometimes it's a real feeling of hunger, and sometimes it's their way of saying "I need something" without knowing exactly what they need. 

Such a child tells us that he is not satisfied. The parent should check with the child when they last ate and what the meal contained. If there is any doubt about the child's behavior and question marks regarding proper and appropriate nutrition, you should consult a pediatrician. 

A dietitian can conduct a nutritional and physical status assessment, and give guidance on how to understand and differentiate needs.

If she detects emotional needs that are not satisfied, she can refer to complementary emotional care.
  • My 15-year-old daughter began to reduce her range of foods, refusing to eat snacks, chocolate and sweets. Is she simply adjusting to healthy eating habits, or should I be worried?
When a teenage girl starts making this kind of choice in the foods she consumes, you should talk to her about it and understand the reasons. 

Does she want to lose weight? Is she being dragged after someone else doing this in the classroom / home? It must be checked whether it also reduces quantities of the basic foods (bread, meat, dairy products). 

Reducing high-fat and sugar-rich products from the daily menu should a red light bulb. 

Adolescence is a confusing age, and it is difficult to accept the changes in the body. Eating disorders are common at this age. Keep an eye out and, if necessary, consult a specialist dietitian to treat teens. The dietitian will perform a nutritional assessment and provide guidance and opinions.

H2PRO Hydrogen, Researchers Developed Environmentally Friendly Hydrogen Production Technology

E-TAC water-splitting technology improves the energy efficiency of the hydrogen production process to an unprecedented peak, 98.7%, and significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions. 

environmentally friendly hydrogen production technology
"Water Split" - Illustration. In the ETAC process, the water split the hydrogen and oxygen into two different stages and at the high efficiency of 98.7%. (Credit Figure: Tam Carib)

The development-based H2Pro company will translate it into a commercial application

Clean, cheap and safe for hydrogen production. This technology significantly enhances the efficiency of hydrogen production - from around 75% by today's methods to unprecedented energy efficiency of 98.7%. 

Avner Rothschild of the Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering and Prof. Gideon Grader of the Faculty of Chemical Engineering together with Dr. Chen Dotan and Ph.D. student Abigail Landman.

Conclusions of this research were published in the journal Nature Energy.

Electrolysis was discovered over 200 years ago, and since then has been a cumulative collection of point improvements.

Technion researchers are now introducing a dramatic change that will lead them to cheap, clean and very safe hydrogen.

They say the new process could revolutionize hydrogen production, drawing on clean, renewable energy such as solar or wind energy.

The researchers developed an innovative and unique process, E-TAC water-splitting (Electrochemical - Thermally-Activated Chemical water splitting), based on cyclic operation, in which the chemical composition of the anode alternates (the electrode at which the oxidation process takes place).

In the first step, the cathode produces hydrogen, and the anode changes the chemical composition without creating oxygen.

In the following step, the cathode is passive while the anode produces oxygen. At the end of the second step, the anode reverts to its initial state, and the cycle begins again.

Based on this technology, the researchers established the H2Pro startup company, which deals with translation into a commercial application.

Worldwide, vast quantities of hydrogen are produced every year: about 65 million tons, worth about $ 130 billion, which is energy-efficient, to about nine exajoules(EJ), which is about 2,600 terawatts (TWh).

These quantities are steadily increasing and are expected to triple in the next 20 years; By 2030, hydrogen consumption is expected to be 14 exajoules, and by 2040 to 28.

About 53% of the hydrogen generated today is used in ammonia production for fertilizers and other materials, 20% is used in refineries, 7% is used in methanol production and 20% is used in other uses.

In the future, hydrogen is anticipated to be used in other applications, some of which are in accelerated development phases: hydrogen as a fuel for electric vehicles containing fuel cells (FCEV), hydrogen as a fuel for energy storage from renewable sources (P2G), industrial and domestic hydrogen, and more.

Approximately 99% of the hydrogen currently produced is derived from fossil fuel, and its production involves processes that emit atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) - a gas whose excess presence in the atmosphere accelerates global warming.

Hydrogen is produced mainly by extracting natural gas in the process that releases about 10 tonnes of CO2 on each tonne of hydrogen and is therefore responsible for about 2% of total CO2 emissions into the atmosphere from human activity.

This is the background for the urgent need for cleaner, more environmentally friendly alternatives to hydrogen production.

The main alternative currently available for producing hydrogen cleanly and without CO2 emissions is water electrolysis.

In this process, two electrodes, anode and cathode, are placed in the enriched water at the base or the acid, which increases their electrical conductivity.

In response to the transfer of electrical current between the electrodes, the water molecules (H2O) decompose to their chemical elements and release hydrogen gas (H2) near the cathode and oxygen (O2) near the anode.

The whole process takes place in an atomic cell divided in two - in part one the hydrogen is collected.

Producing hydrogen in clean ways, as opposed to producing natural gas in the SMR process, encounters a host of technological challenges.

One is a significant energy loss; The energy efficiency of electrolysis processes today is only about 75%, which means high consumption of electricity. 

Another difficulty is related to a membrane that divides the electrolysis cell into two.

This membrane, which is required to collect the hydrogen on one side and the oxygen on the other, limits the pressure in the electrolysis chamber to 10 to 30 atmospheres, while in most applications pressure of hundreds of atmospheres is required.

For example, electric vehicles containing fuel cells require compression of the hydrogen at 700 atmospheres.

Today, the pressure is increased through large, costly compressors that complicate operation and increase system installation and maintenance expenses.

The presence of the membrane complicates the construction of the production facility and thus substantially increases its cost. 

Beyond this, the membrane requires periodic maintenance and replacement.

1. The absolute chronological detachment between hydrogen production and oxygen production - these two processes happen at different times.


A. Eliminating the need for the membrane that crosses the anode and cathode in the electrolysis chamber. 

This is a significant saving compared to electrolysis, as the membrane is expensive, complicates the production process and requires the use of distilled water and regular maintenance so that it is not frozen.

B. A safe process, which prevents the risk of the oxygen-hydrogen explosion, a meeting that can occur in the normal electrolysis process if the separating membrane is not completely opaque.

The current use of membranes limits the pressure in the hydrogen production process. 

The technology developed at the Technion makes the diaphragm tighten, allowing hydrogen to be compressed at the production stage.

This process also saves some of the enormous costs associated with delayed hydrogen compression.

2. The oxygen generated in a spontaneous chemical reaction between charged anode and the water, without the activation of electric current at that stage.

This response saves the need for electricity at the oxygen generation stage and increases the process efficiency using conventional methods for unprecedented energy efficiency: 98.7%.

3. E-TAC technology is expected to reduce not only operating costs but also equipment costs.

H2Pro estimates that the cost of producing hydrogen in the E-TAC process will be about half the cost of equipment based on existing technologies.

The initial estimates indicate the possibility of producing industrial-scale hydrogen at competitive production costs compared to producing natural gas in the SMR process, as stated without atmospheric CO2 emissions.

Technology developers, Prof. Gideon Grader, Prof. Avner Rothschild, and Dr. Chen Dotan, co-founders of Viber and founded H2Pro, which deals with the commercialization of the new technology.

The Technion Institution raised initial capital led by Hyundai, which employs more than 20 people, most of them Technion graduates.